The human is not included.
Added new Nose 3 with extra holes for JP retractable landing gear.
I added new plain wingtips without tanks today. Wing03-notank.STL is the right wing panel to use if the tip tanks are not used. Wingtip01.STL is the first wingtip I designed without a tank.
Added droptanks for the wing mounts. Droptank01 is one tank. The alignment holes are designed for 1,75 mm filament and are offset so that the parts only go together one way. Droptank02 is the mounting brackets between the tanks and the wing weapon mounts. The tall one goes in the front and the short one in the back. Glue them to the tank and secure the tank to the wing with M3 screws.
Also uploaded new wing parts that have integrated mounting holes for the weapon mounts in the correct location. If you already printed wings you can drill them through the mounts when positioned as I described below.
I added some scale detail. Look up photos of the full size to see exactly where they should go.
Airbrake01 - Fake airbrake shapes for the bottom of the fuselage.
Flares01 - Flare discharge openings for the bottom right rear fuselage.
Sensors02 - Antenna thingy on top of the fuselage.
Sensors03 - Ice accretion transmitter. Goes on the left side of the nose by the landing gear door.
Added two new canopy parts that resemble the canopy of the Aero L-59. I have not tried to print them yet. The file names are L-59-canopy02 and 03.
Also added weapon mounting points for the underside of the wing. Weaponmount01 is the inner mounts and 02 is the outer. They should be mounted with the centerline 10 mm and 110 mm from the wing joint respecitively, with the front screw hole through the center of the front carbon wing joiner.
Also added lightweight covers for the retract units on the bottom of the wing. They should be trimmed slightly to fit if they don't go in all the way, and secured with hot glue so that they can be removed if necessary. Retractcover01.
Addet a tiny part. A printable bottom shock eyelet for the main gear. It can be used on the nse as well. It prevents the spring collar from being pushed down the stock eyelet during high loads. These shocks aren't made to absorb such high loads.
Added a version of Fuselage01 with an integrated latch for the canopy. Make the latch from 50 mm long pieces of 3x5 tubing and 3 mm rod. Use a 4x0,3x20 mm spring and an M3 screw as the handle on top according to the illustration: https://files.cults3d.com/uploaders/12943812/illustration-file/5b7c37a2-fb2e-4132-8198-a63abb9d6e14/EL-39-84.jpg
When using a latch in the rear for the canopy, glue Canopy01 in place on the fuselage, and add a pin to the top of Canopy02 so that it slots into Canopy01 and then is locked in place i the rear by the latch. Add a hole to the rear of Canopy03 for the latch.
Added a canopy handle (Canopylatch01) and flap fairings (Flapfairing01-02). The flap fairings can be glued to the top of the wing at 60 mm fron the inside and outside edge of Wing01-flap and 02-flap, like the photo shows. They should be glued to the static part of the wing, not the flap, obviously.
Added new Canopyplug01-03 which work better for vacuum moulding canopies. Can also be used to 3D print canopies using the spiral vase function with a clear filament. I recommend Prima EasyPrint clear filament for the best clarity. multiple clear coats of paint increase the transparency.
Added new Fuselage03-bigESC and 04-bigESC with larger ESC cavity in the top, for those with bigger ESCs than the original recommendations. Up to 30 mm tall and 59 mm wide ESCs can be fitted in the hole.
Added new Nose03-05 and Vstab01-05 with more internal structure to reduce the chance of buckling when printing.
Uploaded nose wheels for ball bearings. The file is Nosewheel01-bb and it uses the same ball bearings as all the control surfaces. Main wheels for bearings should follow soon.
Uploaded a slightly changed Fuselage05 to improve the top layer quality and reduce the pull on the side walls as the top layers are printed.
Uploaded a new Fuselage03 with slightly more internal support to improve print quality when the top layers are printed.
Uploaded a new Fuselage02 and Fuselage03 with tiny changes because it caused a layer shift in my printer today. I also uploaded my Simplify3D settings for fuselage parts as JGAurora Airplane.zip
Uploaded a new Nose02 because of issues with the model.
Added small glue holes on the bottom of the flaps and elevators to more easily identify which side is up and which side is down. Add thin CA to the holes to secure the surface to the carbon hinge pin after assembly.
Length: 1858,5 mm
Wingspan: 1451 mm
All up weight: 7,2 kg (prototype #1 ), 8 kg (prototype #2 ), 7,5 kg (prototype #3 )
CG: 83-103 mm from the leading edge at the wing joint with the gear in the up position. There is a protrusion on the top of each wing surface to indicate the safe 83mm/25% MAC position. Gear up or down should make little difference because of the low weight of the nose gear. The prototype maidened with CG at approximately 90 mm. 103 mm CG has been tested and flies very well.
Initial control throws:
Elevator: Up 18 mm / Down 16 mm
Ailerons: Up 20 mm / Down 15 mm
Rudder: 15mm / 15 mm
Appropriate pilot figure:
Video of the prototype without flaps:
High speed fly bys:
Build notes. Most of the plane assembly is pretty self explanatary, but here are some explanations. Read carefully:
300x300 mm print area is required for the largest parts. Many parts fit on a 200x200 bed, and some even smaller printers. I use a JGAurora A5 with TMC2100 stepper drivers for the big parts and a Wanhao Duplicator i3 for the smaller parts.
Good quality PLA should be used for the entire model. I recommend PrimaValue PLA: https://www.e3printable.no/nettbutikk-norge/14-pla/539-pla-175mm-1kg-lys-graa/
Main tires, nose tire, fanrubber and fanseals need to be printed from TPU or other rubber like filaments.
Fuselage 01-07 should be glued together with CA and indexed with four 4x16 mm carbon rod pieces between each joint. I use thick CA and apply kicker to the edge after joining. The fuselage sections can be lightened by removing the bulk of the mating faces of each part. The example below shows the same part lightened and not lightened. It saved 30 g on this part alone, which adds up to a lot of weight on the finished plane. Make sure you leave a decent edge for glue to stick to when mating the parts, and make sure the different openings on the face are connected by solid material when you lighten them:
Fuselage02 and Fuselage03 have small hinge lines for the main gear doors. These should be drilled or checked with wire before they are glued together because it's hard to do after assembly. If you didn't check them in advance and they are tight, you can use a 1 mm piano wire in a drill and use it as a flexible drill bit to open them up.
Nose03-Nose05 should also be glued together with CA and 4x16 mm carbon rods like the fuselage pieces. Nose01 and Nose02 should be installed with M3 screws. These two need to be replaceable to aid with access to the nose components and for replacement in case of damage.
Wing01, or Wing01-flap if you want flaps, must be glued to the fuselage with the 9x11x576 and 11x13x576 carbon tubes. The outer wing panels slot into these carbon tubes.This is done so that the plane can stand on the wheels during service, storage and transport.
Horizontal stabilizers should be joined and connected with the fuselage with 5mmx660 mm and 5mmx344 carbon rods or tubes. Glue the tubes in the stabilizer on one side and use screws on the other stabilizer to hold it all together. That way they can be removed to access to the servos.
All control surfaces use 3mm carbon rods and 3x6x2,5 mm ball bearings as hinges. Use two 3 mm split lock washers between the control surface and bearings to center each control surface, as shown in one illustration photo. Position them in slots that keep the control surface centered.
The shock absorbers need to be modified with the 3D printed pistons Shockpiston02 and 10000CST differential oil in order to dampen the heavy airplane on landing impact. The springs can be stretched slightly to increase tension.They should be very heavy to compress. Shockpiston01 can be used with thicker oil than 10000CST or for tuning if lighter damping is needed. One should also install an O-ring or rubber grommet on the exposed shaft between the housing and bottom cup to work as a soft end stop. The main gear will most likely bottom out when sitting on the ground, but will stretch on take off and be ready to absorb the landing shock when you land. Airplane shock absorbers are not designed to give a good ride quality, but to absorb the huge impact of the landing.
Glue the 11x51 mm carbon tubes into Maingear02 and then attach the exposed end of the carbon tube in the retract units. To install Maingear01 to Maingear02 use two 3x6x2,5 mm ball bearings and two M3x10 mm screws:
Assemble the nose gear as shown in the illustration:
The ESC should ideally sit inside the compartment over the intake duct, with wires going forward to the receiver and battery. This ensures adequate cooling. Extra capacitors need to be installed in such a way that they fit in the cable tube inside the fuselage.
If the 3D printable fan is used, the recommended HET motor should also be used with the heatsink. I do not know how well it will work in a very hot environment. 3D printed high power is still at an experimental stage for me. The motor shaft should have a hole drilled half way through it for one of the M3-16 mm impeller grub screws, because heat soak from the motor can cause the impeller to come loose if just a flat spot is used. The prototype fan pulls 83 A at full throttle on a fresh 12S charge when installed in the plane. As of 03.07.2018 I have flown the 3D printed PLA impeller in 21°C ambient temperature, and the motor got too hot to hold my hand around for longer than a couple of seconds. I will recommend that the PLA impeller is not used for hot environments because of this. Hotter materials may work but that's more experimental than using PLA, and there are other properties that come into play, like elasticity.
Here's how you open up the hinges for the wheel doors. Use the same piano wire you use as the hinge pins to open up the holes with a drill. Cut the end of the wire to make a flat spade shape before drilling for easier drilling:
Part list. Some links have my affiliate code, which helps me pay for project development:
3x Shock absorbers: https://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-53200-19255-0/1?ff3=4&toolid=11800&pub=5575353675&campid=5338226872&mpre=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebay.com%2Fitm%2FBLACK-Shock-Absorber-102004-RC-1-10-On-Road-Drift-car-02002-02175-HSP-122004%2F272113528144
10000 CST diff oil for the shocks: https://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-53200-19255-0/1?ff3=4&toolid=11800&pub=5575353675&campid=5338226872&mpre=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebay.com%2Fitm%2FAssociated-5455-2oz-Silicone-Diff-Fluid-Differential-Oil-10K%2F191929773294%3Fepid%3D2255288506%26hash%3Ditem2cafe7ecee%3Ag%3Aue8AAOSwHf5bA3hN
M2x16 mm screws for the wheels.
Assorted M3 screws, cap head and countersunk head. 8-mm to 35mm length.
Assorted M3 grub screws.
Coutnersunk M4x38 mm screws for the main wheel axles.
#1 countersunk self tapping screws for the servo hatches.
Adjustable pushrod connectors for wheel doors:
4x 12x2 mm round magents for securing the canopy:
24 3x6x2,5 mm ball bearings for control surface hinges and landing gear hinges:
2x 12x18x4 mm ball bearings for nose wheel steering:
7x Nylon clevises for control surfaces:
7x M2 metal pushrods for control surfaces:
7x Snap link clevises for control servos:
1,5 mm piano wire for gear door links and hinges.
1x 5mmx500 mm carbon rod for horizontal stabs (rear rod)
1x 5mmx344 mm carbon rod for horizontal stabs (front rod)
assorted short lengths of 4 mm carbon rod for indexing when joining fuselage parts.
2x 3x225 mm carbon rods for aileron hinges
2x 3x340 mm carbon rods for flap hinges
2x 3x286 mm carbon rods for elevator hinges
1x 3x276 mm carbon rod for rudder hinge
2x 6x8x400 mm carbon wingtip tubes
2x 7x9x440 mm carbon wing tubes
1x 9x11x32 mm carbon tube for nose gear strut
2x 9x11x51 mm carbon tubes for main gear struts
2x 9x11x440 mm carbon wing tubes
1x 9x11x576 mm carbon wing tube
1x 11x13x576 mm carbon wing tube
-12S 5000+mAh lipos. Two of these will work and give five minutes of safe duration. I recommend XT90 connectors instead of the included XT60:
-7x Control surface servos. The prototype flies with these: https://www.banggood.com/Corona-CS238MG-Thin-Metal-Wing-Analog-Servo-p-1049129.html?p=HD240528697332015103
Other servos with a case profile of less than 30x15 mm will also fit. A stronger digital option is Corona DS-236MG
-Optional servo reverser if you are unable to reverse one flap and one gear door servo by other means:
-4x Landing gear door servos and nose gear steering servos: 9-12 g servos with metal gear are recommended. Not SG92R servos as they go crazy when used with the sequencer.
-ESC: 12S 120A+ ESC. I recommend Castle Creations Talon 120 because it has a strong integrated BEC. https://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-53200-19255-0/1?ff3=4&toolid=11800&pub=5575353675&campid=5338226872&mpre=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ebay.com%2Fitm%2FCastle-Creations-Talon-120-HV-120A-12S-ESC-Speed-Control-550-600-700-Heli%2F131587364100
The prototype flies with an Aerostar Advance 120A: https://hobbyking.com/en_us/aerostar-advance-120a-esc-opto.html?affiliate_code=BSFWYBUNYWDKXJN&_asc=5830570510
-Extra capacitors with low ESR for the ESC because of extended battery wires. At least 660uF.
-Retract and door sequencer: https://hobbyking.com/en_us/turnigy-smart-retractable-landing-gear-gear-and-door-sequencer.html
-90° outward operating retracts with 11 mm strut clamp are required to use the 3D printable trailing link suspension. I use this (might require some adjustment to operate perfectly): https://hobbyking.com/en_us/turnigy-90-degree-all-metal-servoless-outward-operating-retract-unit-90-size-1pc.html?affiliate_code=BSFWYBUNYWDKXJN&_asc=9928784058
Other retract units will fit. The gear and wheel bays are roomy. The highest quality option is probably the Electron ER-30evo, which should fit with some adaption:
-Motor for the printable EDF: https://www.effluxrc.com/HET-800-73-590-Motor-8mm-shaft-HET800-73-590-8MM.htm
File name descriptions:
Aileron01 - Ailerons.
Airbrake01 - Fake airbrake shapes for the bottom of the fuselage.
Canopy01 - Front part of the canopy.
Canopy02 - Middle part of the canopy.
Canopy02 - Rear part of the canopy.
Canopylatch01 - Scale non functional outside handle for opening the canopies.
Canopyplug01 - Plug for vacuum forming the middle part of the canopy.
Canopyplug01 - Plug for vacuum forming the rear part of the canopy.
EDF-housing01 - EDF ousing and motor mount.
EDF-Impeller01 - 11 blade EDF impeller for 8 mm shaft.
EDF-tailcone01 - Tailcone for the back end of a HET 800-motor.
Elevator01 - Inner elevator parts.
Elevator02 - Middle elevator parts.
Elevator03 - Outer elevator parts.
Fanintake01 - Tube to guide air from the fuselage duct towards the EDF housing.
Fanrail01 - Mounting rails for the engine compartment. Pre-made holes for the printable EDF and Changesun 120 mm fan with captive M3 nuts.
Fanrubber01 - Mounting grommets for EDF installation on the fanrails.
Fanseal01 - Flexible seal between the front of the EDF and the rear of Fanintake01.
Fanseal02 - Flexible duct between the rear of the EDF and the exhaust tube of the fuselage.
Flap01 - Innermost flap parts.
Flap02 - Outermost flap parts.
Flap03 - Hinge brackets for the flaps. Fits in Wing02-flap.
Flapfairing01 - Dummy inboard flap fairing for the top of the wing.
Flapfairing02 - Dummy outboard flap fairing for the top of the wing.
Flares01 - Flare discharge openings for the bottom right rear fuselage. Look up photos of the real L-39 to find it.
Fuselage01-07 - Fuselage sections, from forward to rear.
Fuselage01-Latch - Fuselage part with integrated channel for a latch.
Fuselage03-bigESC -Section with larger hole for bigger than normal ESCs.
Fuselage04-bigESC -Section with larger hole for bigger than normal ESCs.
Hstab01 - Inner parts of the horizontal stabilizer.
Hstab01 - Outer parts of the horizontal stabilizer.
Hstab02 - Tips of the horizontal stabilizer.
Intake01 - Intake lips for the air intakes. Separate to simplify painting in a separate color.
L-59-canopy02 - Middle part of L-59 style canopy.
L-59-canopy03 - Rear part of L-59 style canopy.
Maingear01-02 - The main landing gear trailing link assembly.
Maingeardoor01 - Main gear doors to attach to the main landing gear.
Maingeardoor02 - Left inner main gear door.
Maingeardoor03 - Right inner main gear door.
Maingeardoor04 - Horns for the links to close Maingeardoor02 and 03.
Maingearmounts01 - Heavy duty mounting beams for the main landing gear in the inner wing parts.
Maintire01 - Main landing gear tire.
Mainwheel01 - Main landing gear wheel.
Mainwheel01-bb - Main landing gear wheel for 4x7x3 ball bearings.
Motorhatch01 - Hatch for the EDF compartment in the fuselage.
Nose01 - Tip of the nose.
Nose02 - Nose part and nose landing gear compartment.
Nose03-05 - Parts of nose under the cockpit area.
Nosegear01-03 - Nose gear trailing link assembly.
Nosegear04 - Internal part of the nose gear strut.
Nosegear05 - Top bearing cap of the nose gear strut.
Nosegear06 - Mounting and steering beam for the nose gear.
Nosegear07 - Nose gear steering link eye.
Nosegeardoor01 - Nose gear door.
Nosegeardoor01 - Nose gear door hinges with intergrated link hole.
Nosetire01 - Nose landing gear tire.
Nosewheel01 - Nose landing gear wheel without bearings.
Nosewheel01-bb - Nose landing gear wheel for 3x6x2,5 mm ball bearings.
Pitot01 - Pitot tubes for the wings.
Retractcover01 - Covers for the retract bays.
Rudder01 - Bottom part of the rudder.
Rudder02 - Top part of the rudder.
Rudderfence01 - Plate that goes under the top of the vertical stabilizer, over the rudder. Not all L-39 have this. Look up photos of the real L-39 to find it.
Sensors01 - Three rods that fit in the holes under Nose01.
Sensors02 - Antenna thingy on top of the fuselage. Look up photos of the real L-39 to find it.
Sensors03 - Ice accretion transmitter. Goes on the left side of the nose by the landing gear door. Look up photos of the real L-39 to find it.
Servohatchaileron01 - Aileron servo hatches. Install with #0 or #1 screws.
Servohatchrudder01 - Rudder servo hatch. Install with #0 or #1 screws.
Shockpiston01 - Two slot shock piston for heavier than 10000 CST oil.
Shockpiston02 - One slot shock piston for 10000 CST oil and lighter weight.
Tiptank01 - Rear parts of wing tip tanks.
Tiptank02 - Middle parts of wing tip tanks.
Tiptank03 - Front parts of wing tip tanks.
Tiptank04 - Tip tank front light glass.
Vstab01 - Bottom front part of vertical stabilizer.
Vstab02 - Bottom rear part of vertical stabilizer.
Vstab03 - Middle part of vertical stabilizer.
Vstab04 - Middle part of vertical stabilizer.
Vstab05 - Top part of vertical stabilizer.
Wing01 - Inner part of the wings without flap.
Wing01-flap - Inner part of the wings with flap.
Wing02 - Middle part of the wings without flap.
Wing02-flap - Middle part of the wings with flap.
Wing03 - Outer parts of the wings.
Wing03-notank - Outer parts of the wings for wingtips without tip tanks.
Wingtip01 - Plain wingtip without tip tank.
JGAurora Airplane.zip - Simplify 3D profile for fuselage sections with JGAurora A5 printer.
Most parts should be printed with one 0,4 mm perimeter only. The exceptions are hinge pieces, small parts and landing gear parts which should be printed with many walls or solid infill.
Fuselage-parts need 3 bottom layers and six top layers for the most part.
Fanrail01 need to be printed solid if you plan to drill them for an aftermarket EDF.
Maingearmounts01 should be printed with six perimeters and twenty top layers to give something for the retract mounting screws to grab on to. Bottom layers can be just four or five. Infill isn't important. Iuse zero infill.
Maingear01-02 should be eight 0,4 mm perimeters, twelve top and bottom layers and at least 50% infill. The same goes for the nose gear parts.